While Karl Marx (1818-1883) is widely identified with socialism, his work in understanding capitalism as a system of society and economy remains an effective critique of it in the contemporary age. Revered as the father of socialism, Karl Marx (1818-1883) is, according to the common understanding, the founder of socialist theory, creator of a program that was later implemented by the Soviet Socialist Republics and other socialist states.
In the middle of the 19th century, the conversion of socialism into political ideology was developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who codified their socialism theory as resulting from the revolutionary class struggle between proletariat and bourgeoisie. In the 1860s, Germany adopted Karl Marx’s beliefs to form social democracy, a political ideology where a gradual shift from capitalism to socialism was made rather than a sudden and violent overthrow of the system. In writing The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx (1818-1883) and his lifelong friend Friedrich Engels explained how they believed that capitalism was not sustainable, and how a capitalist society, as it existed at the time it was written, would ultimately be replaced with a socialist society.
The Communist Manifesto synthesizes Karl Marx’s (1818-1883) and his lifelong friend Friedrich Engels theories on the nature of society and politics, and is an attempt to explain the goals of Marxism, and later, socialism. French philosopher Victor dHupay (1746-1818) called himself a communist writer in around 1785, thirty-three years before the birth of Karl Marx (1818-1883), and his colleague Nicolas-Edme Retif (1734-1806) also used socialism to describe a form of government. In the 1840s, German philosopher Karl Marx articulated a new theory, scientific socialism, that Karl Marx claimed was grounded in the scientific study of history.
Then came Carl Marx, the German political philosopher and economist, who was to become one of history’s most influential socialist thinkers. Marx and Engels were the last of a long line of economic and political theorists, who were both identified as socialists. They saw the evolution of advanced societies starting from capitalism, moving towards socialism, and eventually reaching an end point of communism.
In fact, Marxists frequently refer to socialism as the first, necessary stage in the path from capitalism to communism. As a deviation from the understanding of Karl Heinrich Marx’s Socialist Revolution, which held that revolution had to occur in countries which had first passed the stage of capitalism, producing the proletarian class as a majority, that was necessary for society revolutionary transformation to be socialist countries and the Communist world. For Karl Marx, this latter stage would have all of the communion and lack of social classes he described in his conception of primitive human society which existed prior to the development of tools and private property systems.
Communism is the form of socialism that Marx argued, where an unavoidable struggle among the social classes would result in a classless society in which all means of production were owned by the community. Sometimes called revolutionary socialism, communism also emerged as a response to the industrial revolution, which came to be defined – taken to its extreme Marx’s theories. The German philosopher also produced a number of insights into the way groups of people act, the way capitalism works, and the way that technology can sometimes negatively affect workers.
In contrast, Karl Heinrich Marx claimed that work is a social activity, and the conditions and forms that individual’s labor in are socially determined and vary over time. A common saying, purportedly by Kwame Ture, holds that Marx did not create or invent socialism, but simply observed it. The Influence of His Critique of Political Economy on Marx’s Concept of Socialism His greatest theoretical work does not give a comprehensive account of socialist society, as it is solely concerned with defining the laws of movement of capitalism.