Communism was developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, the antithesis to capitalism, which relies on democracy and capital-production for forming a society. The father of Communism, Karl Marx, was a German philosopher and economist who proposed communism in The Communist Manifesto, which he wrote with Friedrich Engels in 1848. Although ideas for communism existed prior to Karl Marx writing his 1848 communist manifesto, this document has come to represent the central ideas behind contemporary communist ideologies and movements.
In 1848, Karl Marx and his colleague Friedrich Engels proposed a new definition of communism, and popularized the term with their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto. Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels did not distinguish between communism and socialism consistently or explicitly themselves, helping to perpetuate confusion amongst these terms. Exactly how communism differs from socialism has long been subject to dispute, but the distinction is mostly due to the Communists commitment to the revolutionary socialism of Karl Marx.
According to German philosopher Karl Marx, socialism is the necessary intermediate stage between capitalism and an ideal communist economy. Marx held that alienation stems from the capitalist social relations rather than the kinds of technical advances contained in capitalist societies.
Today, the term communism generally refers to the political and economic ideology that emerged from Karl Marxs revolutionary socialist theory, which advocates for a proletariat to overthrow the capitalist structures within a society; for communal and social ownership and management of the means of production; and for an ultimately classless society. Communism (from the Latin communis, communal, universal) is a philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement with the ultimate goal being the establishment of a communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured around the ideas of collective ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and a classless society.
Communism is a political ideology and a type of government whereby the state owns major resources of a society, including property, means of production, education, agriculture, and transportation. Communism is a political ideology which holds that societies can attain complete social equality through elimination of private property. Communism, a political and economic doctrine which seeks to replace private property and the profit-based economy with the social ownership and control of at least major means of production (e.g., mines, mills, and factories) and the natural resources of society. Communism is a political and economic ideology which positions itself as opposed to liberal democracy and capitalism, advocating instead a classless system where the means of production are owned collectively and private property is absent or greatly reduced.
As such, communism, as an ideology, is generally confused with the political and economic systems developed in the Soviet Union following the Russian Revolution. The social system that was founded upon the ideology of communism is also called Communism, and it was supposed to be the final goal for the social development. Communism, sometimes called revolutionary socialism, also emerged as a response to the industrial revolution, which came to be defined – taken to its ultimate end – by Marx’s theories. Modern communist ideology began to develop during the French Revolution, with the publication of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels’s seminal tract, The Communist Manifesto, in 1848.
In the seminal tract and subsequent works, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and their followers argued for (and predicted as historically inevitable) a worldwide proletarian revolution that would herald an era of socialism, and later Communism. In The State and the Revolution (1917), Lenin asserted that socialism corresponded with the first stage of Karl Marxs communist society, while communism matched with the second. The philosophy set forth by Marx and Engels has since been called Marxism, since it is essentially different from various forms of communism which succeeded it. The Communist Manifesto ignores some of the communist philosophies prominent in early practices of communism.