Communism is a political ideology and a type of government whereby the state owns major resources of a society, including property, means of production, education, agriculture, and transportation. Communism is a political ideology that is based on the principle of communal property, and is concerned mostly with equality and justice. Communism is a political ideology which holds that societies can attain complete social equality through the elimination of private property. Communism is a political, social, philosophical, and economic doctrine aimed at replacing a profit-based private-property economy with the common ownership of the main means of production.
Inspired by German philosopher Karl Marx, communist states replace private property and the profit-based economy with common ownership and control over economic production, such as labor, capital goods, and natural resources. In communism, the government has total control of production and distribution of goods and of all resources, which are shared evenly throughout the society. In economics, communism calls for government to control all the capital and industries of a nation, trying to eliminate economic inequality.
The ultimate aim of communism is the elimination of class differences between individuals, with all individuals sharing equally in society’s proceeds, at which point the government will be unnecessary. In fact, Karl Marx believed that when such a communism emerged, it would gradually remove the need for the state, for governmental authority, or for an economic system entirely. In the meantime, however, Marx felt there would need to be some kind of political system in place before communism emerged from the ashes of a socialist revolution–a temporary, transitional state which should be administered by the people themselves.
While Karl Marx may have provided a complete basis for the conception of communism, ideologies changed over the next few years, as leaders such as Vladimir Lenin (Leninism), Joseph Stalin (Stalinism), Mao Zedong (Maoism), and others attempted to enact communism as a practical system of government. Since then, communism has been identified, mostly, if not entirely, with forms of political and economic organization developed in the Soviet Union and later adopted by the Peoples Republic of China and other countries run by Communist parties.
The Soviet Communist system enforced the central governments ownership and control (a system that was imposed on the other countries in the Soviet Bloc of Eastern Europe as well), rejected elections on the grounds that communist parties represented the people, and used a repressive system for repressing dissenters. Although the goal of communism was to serve the needs of the proletariat, communist governments merely became repressive regimes, using their populations to increase their power, exploiting the masses of people even more so than capitalists.
Today, the term communism generally refers to the political and economic ideology that emerged out of Karl Marx’s theory of revolutionary socialism, which advocates for a proletariats overthrow of the capitalist structures in a society; the communal and social ownership and management of the means of production; and, eventually, a classless society. Communism is a political and economic ideology which positions itself as opposed to liberal democracy and capitalism, advocating instead a classless system where the means of production are owned by society, and where private property is either absent or greatly restricted. Communism (from Latin communis, common, universal) is a philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement with the ultimate goal being to establish communist society, that is, a socioeconomic order structured on the idea of the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and a state.
A Communist is a system of government whereby the state plans and controls the economy, and one – usually an authoritarian-party holds power; government control is enforced through elimination of private property ownership or capital, whilst advocating the advancement towards a higher social order whereby all goods are shared equally among people (i.e., a classless society). Communism, also known as the command system, is an economic system in which the government owns the majority of the factors of production and decides on resource allocations and which products and services are provided.