Karl Marx, in full Karl Heinrich Marx, (born 5 May 1818, Trier, Rhine Province, Prussia[German]–died 14 March 1883, London, England), revolutionary, sociologist, historian, and economist. Karl Marx was a German philosopher, economist, historian, and journalist, known for his work as a radical political theorist and revolutionary socialist. Communism is a form of government most commonly associated with the ideas of Karl Marx, the German philosopher who set out his ideas for a utopian society in The Communist Manifesto, written in 1848. The socialist ideology that underpins the ideology behind communism is called socialism, Karl Marx’s The Communist Manifesto, written in 1848.
One of the main statements of European socialist and communist ideologies, the Communist Manifesto describes Karl Marx’s concept of history from the point of view of class struggle, starting from medieval feudalism to the capitalist system in the 19th century. In 1848, Karl Marx (1818-1883) and his German-born colleague, Friedrich Engels, published the Communist Manifesto, introducing their concept of socialism as a natural outcome of conflicts inherent to the capitalist system. In late 1847, Marx and German thinker Friedrich Engels began writing what would become their best-known work, the Covenant in Action of the Just. In 1847, a newly founded communist league in London, England, drafted Karl Marx (1818-1883) and his German counterpart, thinker Friedrich Engels, to write the Communist Manifesto, which was published the next year.
In writing The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx (1818-1883) and his lifelong friend Friedrich Engels explained how they believed that capitalism was not sustainable, and how a capitalist society, as it existed at the time it was written, would ultimately be replaced with a socialist society. Karl Marx (1818-1883), along with Friedrich Engels, published The Communist Manifesto in 1848; later in life, he wrote The Capital (the first volume was published in Berlin in 1867; the second and third volumes were published posthumously in 1885 and 1894, respectively), discussing a theory of value of work. In 1867, Karl Marx (1818-1883) published the first volume of Das Kapital (Capital), which laid out his view of capitalism and its inescapable tendency towards self-destruction, and took part in a growing international workers’ movement built around his revolutionary theories. Karl Marx went on to become the most prominent proponent of communism in Europe during the 19th century, and became known chiefly for his involvement with the Paris Commune (1871)–a socialist workers revolt against the French government which lasted for two months.
Karl Marx became interested in communism–the theory that the means of production should be owned communally and managed for the general benefit–after beginning his career as a radical journalist in the early 1840s. By the time the German philosopher, published The Communist Manifesto in 1848, worker revolts had broken out in Germany and a number of other European countries. When the proletariat eventually took over economic production, A German philosopher declared that all classes would disappear, and the class struggle would come to an end. Marx believed that production would quickly lead to new class struggles, ending in the violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie by the proletariat.
Two texts that are of importance here are The Communist Manifesto (early 1848), published just prior to the February Revolution by Marx and Engels, and, after Marx’s transfer to London, The Class Struggles in France (1850), which Marx examined the ensuing defeats in 1848 France. Marx also worked, with Engels, on the set of manuscripts that are usually known as The German Ideology (1845-46), a significant part of which attacked the work of Max Stirner (1806-1856).